unfavorable=negative（not good and likely to cause problems or make sth more difficult）
compromise（这个就是考查一词多义，大家对compromise的意思都是停留在“妥协，折中”，但是ETS却考了它另外一个意思：bring sb/sth/yourself into a danger or under sespicion）=weaken
motives（Your motive for doing something is your reason for doing it）=reaons
anticipate（英文释义：to see what might happen in the future and take action to prepare for it）=predict
1.easily or clearly heard, seen, felt, etc.
2.clearly different or of a different kind
1. far away from places where other people live in
remote=isolated（isloated这个词有两个意思经常用到：① far away from any others; ② the state of being alone or lonely）
remote=distant（distant意思是 far away in space or time）
2.not very great 细小的；微小的
intact=keep original condition
这个词大家知道的意思是“精炼；提纯”，但是ETS缺考了另外一个意思：to improve sth by making small changes to it（改进，改善），所以refine可以替换成improve
1.be derived from sth 来源于
2. derive sth from sth
to get sth from sth 得到，获得
viable=able to survive
implication（a possible effect or result of an action or a decision）=consequence
edible=fit to be eaten
compensate=make up for
transparent=images can be seen through them without obstruction
many-segmented= be divided into several parts
collate（ to collect pieces of sth and arrange them in the correct order）=assemble
expend（to expend something, especially energy, time, or money, means to use it or spend it）=use
Demographic patterns also affected urbanization in two ways: first, urban populations grew steadily throughout the century due to immigration from rural areas, principally by those seeking factory work, and emigration from abroad.
The word “steadily” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Many nineteenth-century urban problems were those that continue to plague cities today—crime, pollution, noise—but others were the direct result of lack of planning and regulation, such as threat of fire, poor sanitation, and shoddy building construction. Fire was a significant problem in urban areas of North America from the time of the first European settlement.
The word “plague” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A.be discussed in
B.be found in
D.cause trouble for
Typically, development was both unplanned and unrestricted, with landowners making all choices of lot size, services, and street arrangement based only on their individual needs in the marketplace. Distortions of streets and abrupt changes in the distance of houses from the street in urban areas, which so clearly delineate where one development ended and another began, were just the most obvious problems that this lack of coordination created.
The word “abrupt” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Of the 75,000 large dams in the United States, most were built a long time ago and are now obsolete, expensive, and unsafe. They were built with no consideration of the environmental costs.
The word "obsolete " in the passage is closest in meaning to
C.out of date
Removing the mud, uncovering gravel beds where fish spawn, and finding suitable salmon types to rebuild the population is a daunting task. Congress will have to appropriate somewhere around $300 to $400 million to remove these two relatively small dams and rehabilitate the area.
The word "suitable " in the passage is closest in meaning to
Environmental groups, encouraged by these examples, have begun to talk about much more ambitious projects. Four giant dams on the Snake River in Washington State, for example, might be removed to restore salmon and steelhead fish runs to the headwaters of the Columbia River.
The word "ambitious " in the passage is closest in meaning to
A.impressive but difficult to achieve
B.dangerous and require considerable planning
C.complex and unlikely to be complete
Do certain interests, such as the rights of native people or the continued existence of native species of fish or wildlife, take precedence over economic factors, or should this be a utilitarian calculation of the greatest good for the greatest number?
The phrase "take precedence over " in the passage is closest in meaning to
B.have greater importance than
C.get included among
In fact, unpredictability is probably a greater problem than is the severity of the unfavorable period. How can organisms cope with the unpredictable onset of good or poor conditions?
The word “ severity ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Consequently, they can complete the life cycle during the brief window of favorable conditions, then return to the resistant resting stage to await the next rainfall. Resting stages thus comprise a series of adaptations that allow the species to avoid the most difficult conditions for life.
The word “ comprise “ in the passage is closest in meaning to
C.are similar to
D.take the place of
The heavier substances in this frigid cloud of dust and gases consisted mostly of such elements as silicon, aluminum, iron, and calcium—the substances of today’s common rocky materials. Also prevalent were other familiar elements, including oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen.
The word “frigid” in the passage is closet in meaning to